Top 3 Resources for Dyslexia

The internet is an amazing place. We can instantly find information with just a few taps on a keyboard. However, with this simplicity comes an overwhelming amount of information, which can be hard to sift through. The majority of my pins are from these three websites.

Below are some of my personal favorite resources for dyslexia. I often use Pinterest to save specific topics I want to use in the future.

  1. Understood.org. Holy moly! This website is ah-mazing!! They are all about providing resources and information to families of students with learning and attention issues. Parents can chat with experts on specific topics (make sure you RSVP), join discussions, use personalized tools, and check out a tonnnn of resources. One of my favorite current resource is “8 Reasons Kids Might Read Slowly”.
  2. LearningAlly.org. I recently discovered this website after a parent mentioned it during a tutoring session. Learning Ally provides audio books for students with dyslexia and learning disabilities (for a fee). One of my favorite aspects of this site is the app that they have to make life easier for readers. Students can simply pop on headphones and enjoy a book without struggling to decode.
  3. The Literacy Nest. I shared my love for The Literacy Nest Blog last week (check it out here). For parents that homeschool, teachers, and tutors, this website provides incredible resources. There is a ton of information on dyslexia, tips for parents, spelling, etc. There is information on Orton-Gillingham (OG) and on the multi-sensory approach to reading. Emily Gibbons (the creator of The Literacy Nest) also has a Teachers Pay Teachers store where educators and parents can purchase worksheets and activities to help students. There is also a newsletter that viewers can subscribe to in order to stay up to date.

Each site offers unique information/resources for families and educators about working with dyslexic students.

Books for Parents About Reading

One of my favorite parts about my job is being able to have conversations with parents. The majority of the time parents ask me what they can do at home to help their child become a stronger reader and writer. Over the last few years I’ve come across some great texts to help parents.

  1. Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do by Daniel T. Willingham. I shared this book  quite a while ago after I discovered it from the Read Aloud Revival Podcast (click here to read the review). The organization of this book makes it a great guide for families. It is broken into sections based on ages, so it can be used as a great reference tool for specific stages. The text is extremely user friendly, with clear and concise writing that parents can easily understand. The examples included give readers a solid idea for how to be hands-on at home with reading support.
  2. The Read Aloud Family: Making Meaningful and Lasting Connections with Your Kids by Sarah Mackenzie. Ahhh, Sarah Mackenzie. The Sarah Mackenzie from The Read Aloud Revival podcast and blog. This book shows families how to create and sustain a love of reading at home. While Mackenzie does homeschool her children, the plethora of information she shares can also be utilized by families with children in traditional school environments. My favorite part is that she includes book lists for specific age groups. These book recommendations focus on quality- great morals, messages, and strong characters- that really allow families to engage in authentic conversations. She also walks parents through ways to get in read aloud time, including the use of audiobooks and picnics.
  3. The Enchanted Hour: The Miraculous Power of Reading Aloud in the Age of Distraction by Meghan Cox Gordon. If you’ve been following my blog, you know my strong passion for reading aloud to kids of all ages (yes, even middle and high school students). Over the summer I shared this book with you (click here to see the review) because it blows me away.  What stands out most to me in this book is the research included about the power of reading aloud. For those parents who are curious about the science of reading, this is a great text to dive into.

These three books cover different aspects about reading at home with children of all ages. Before purchasing one, figure out what you’re looking for in a book. Do you want to know how to create a reading routine at home? Then you may want to look at Sarah Mackenzie’s book. Regardless of which one (or more!) you choose to read, I promise you will walk away with more confidence about helping your reader at home.

My Favorite Literacy Blogs

I love how social media has allowed me to connect with some amazing individuals over the years, and it has also introduced me to incredible members of the literacy world. I look to these fabulous ladies for inspiration and motivation on all things literacy :).

  1. Read Aloud Revival. If you’ve been following my blog, you know I’m OBSESSED with Sarah Mackenzie (see Reading Aloud Resources for Parents post). She is a homeschooling mom who has such an incredible passion for reading with her six kids. Her blog is geared towards families who read at home with their children. One of my favorite things that Mackenzie does is create book lists. Not only does this make life easier for busy families, it provides guidance in creating a culture of reading at home. Mackenzie also has an ah-mazing podcast.
  2. The Literacy Nest.  The last year and half I’ve been immersing myself in dyslexia and Orton-Gillingham. Through this journey I came across Emily Gibbons from The Literacy Nest, who is my guru in the dyslexia world. Her blog includes fabulous tips, strategies, and ideas to help dyslexic students. I love that the information can be used by teachers AND parents. She even has a Teachers Pay Teachers store where you can purchase resources to use with students (click here for the store). I’ve also had the privilege to learn from Emily through Tutor Success Academy and she is just awesome!
  3. Katie McKnight Literacy. I found Dr. Katie McKnight my first year teaching and have been following her ever since. She focuses on secondary (grades 6-12) reading and writing skills for the 21st century. What makes her stand out to me is her constant support for teachers and parents. She has published books, won multiple awards, and has presented all over the US. She even provides professional development online, in webinars, or in person.

 

The Enchanted Hour Book Review

I have always believed in the power of read alouds at home and in the classroom, even if students can read on their own. I have butted heads with administrators because they felt my 10 minutes of reading at the beginning of each class was “a waste of learning time”.

Now, I can finally say, there’s a whole book about why it’s not :).

The Enchanted Hour: The Miraculous Power of Reading Aloud in the Age of Distraction by Meghan Cox Gurdon is an incredible text about the power of reading aloud.

What I liked most about this book was the mix of researched information and first hand experiences. I feel like nowadays society demands to see numbers and statistics with every piece of evidence, so when it comes to crafting a text like this one every i must dotted and every t crossed. Boy, does the author do just that. She explains research, studies and interviews with a friendly tone that doesn’t make the reader feel as though he or she is reading a college textbook.

One of the biggest pieces of research that stuck out at me was the MRI study done when children are read to. The study’s results support the idea that reading picture books aloud allows a child’s brain to interact with the text on multiple levels. Personally, I see this first hand when I read with Molly. I’ll read the text and she’ll point at the pictures and draw her own conclusions based on what she sees.

As a parent, I really liked reading about the author’s personal experiences reading with her family. I always think it’s interesting to see what books are loved and read over and over again (Treasure Island is one of the family’s faves). Cox Gurdon also throws in a little parent reflection about her daughter’s experience with Johnny Tremain. If she could go back, she would read the text aloud to her child because the text may have been a little too complex for her at the time. I LOVE that not only does the author acknowledge things could have been done a different way, but also realizes why the text may not have been a good fit for her daughter.

As parents, we all want our children to be super stars, but it’s important to realize when something, such as reading, is just a little too challenging. The author does not get defensive, but rather wishes she could go back and give her child the little extra support she needed. As the author explains, reading aloud is not cheating. It’s just simply a way to get children to appreciate good literature because they aren’t so worried about reading the words.

The teacher in me agrees with every single aspect of this book. I teach secondary reading (6-12) and I truly believe in reading aloud to kids even at this level. As I mention in previous blog posts (click here) I do this in brick and mortar and the virtual environment. Why? Because reading aloud turns kids into readers. As this text explains beautifully, it helps with vocabulary skills at all ages, helps transport children all over this world (and out) during all periods of history, and allows children to appreciate and engage with a text.

My read alouds are without a doubt my favorite part of my teaching day. As the author points out, the reader and listeners bond and have a shared experience during that time. I engage in such in depth conversations with my students during read alouds that I often find myself feeling warm and fuzzy when the time is over. Students have also expressed similar feelings during our read aloud time, and we have such a stronger bond and connection.

The biggest take away from this book is that we need to read to kids. Yes, they can play on an Ipad to learn letter sounds, but nothing can replace someone reading to a child.

And of course the fabulous Sarah Mackenzie from Read Aloud Revival had Meghan Cox Gurdaon on her podcast in June to discuss the book. It’s honestly one of the best podcast episodes from RAR. Feel free to listen to it here.

I strongly recommend this text for parents, teachers and school administrators.

 

Mad Libs in the Classroom and at Home

I recently teamed up with Brightly, an online resource from Penguin Random House, that helps anyone working with kids become lifelong readers. They have a fantastic FREE downloadable Mega Pack of Mad Libs for kids. I was beyond excited when presented with this opportunity because this is a fabulous resource for parents and teachers. This post is sponsored.

As a teacher and reading specialist, I have seen my fair share of student writing , including the good, the bad, and the ugly. Many of my weak writers struggled with foundational writing skills, including parts of speech and grammar.

I spent four years teaching sixth grade language arts and realized that this was a make it or break it year for foundational writing skills. The curriculum expectations of students requires them to include more in the content of their writing (textual evidence, clear arguments) because by this time students should have mastered parts of speech and sentence structure. However, many students need a little more time in developing these skills, so incorporating grammar activities is extremely important at the upper elementary and middle school levels. Mad Libs

Kids see grammar as boring, so it’s imperative that educators (and parents) make the practice of these elements engaging. The use of technology is one of the most popular ways to engage students. Brightly has done this with the FREE downloadable Mega Pack of Mad Libs for kids. Check out the options

Downloadable Mad Libs in the Classroom

There are various ways to use this fabulous resource in the classroom, and below are some of my favorite ideas.

  1. Center activity. Centers are one of my favorite instructional activities for students at any grade level. It not only promotes independence and personal practice time, but it also allows teachers to create activities that students will benefit from completing. The FREE downloadable Mega Pack of Mad Libs for Kids provides teachers with convenience. Any time teachers can avoid the copy machine is a blessing.
  2. Substitute plans. I think most teachers will agree that it’s harder to take a sick day sometimes because of the amount of work that goes into the sub plans. The FREE downloadable Mega Pack of Mad Libs for Kids takes care of this stress. Simply leave directions for your students on how to access the activities and you’re good to go!
  3. Additional practice. This is the time of year for fall parent-teacher conferences. There are always parents looking for ways to help their children build their skills at home. The FREE downloadable Mega Pack of Mad Libs for Kids is a great suggestion for parents because it’s easy to use, portable, and can be used for every age level.

Downloadable Mad Libs at Home

  1. Family activity. Life is hectic and crazy between soccer practice, violin lessons, and homework. It is important for families to come together during the week to reconnect and catch up. The FREE downloadable Mega Pack of Mad Libs for Kids provides families with fun-filled activities for the whole family that will be engaging, entertaining, and educational.
  2. On the go. In previous posts I’ve discussed the importance of reading while on the go, and the FREE downloadable Mega Pack of Mad Libs for Kids enables families to take writing activities with them wherever they go. While waiting for a doctor or driving in the car going, kids can have fun while learning.
  3. Extended school breaks. Many parents want their children to be constantly surrounded by academic activities all year round, even during school breaks and vacations. The FREE downloadable Mega Pack of Mad Libs for Kids supplies parents/guardians with an easy-to-use resource that is fun and exciting.

To learn more about Brightly their fabulous resources, go to http://www.readbrightly.com.

Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do- Book Review

A few weeks ago I posted about reading resources for parents and mentioned Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do by Daniel T. Willingham. I purchased the e-book version because I was too excited to wait for Amazon to deliver a paper copy, which was a blessing because I read it on my phone and Kindle over the last few weeks. It took me much longer to read than I anticipated because I couldn’t stop highlighting and writing notes.

Since I started teaching I’ve been on a quest to find a book to help parents (and teachers) address reading concerns and I believe I have finally found it! This book is truly one of a kind. Willingham’s writing voice is superb. He speaks to the reader as a fellow parent/educator with a calm demeanor. He never makes the reader feel incompetent nor does he command or belittle the reader.

One of my favorite ideas from this book is to start now. The introduction states this and it is repeated many times throughout the text. I love that Willingham doesn’t make parents or teachers feel that it’s too late. Many feel that by the time a child is in middle school it’s too late to improve reading skills and motivation, but Willingham constantly denies this with realistic, supportive ideas for adults.

The book starts off with a great explanation of general reading information including: the role of sound, the role of knowledge in comprehension, and motivation. As an educator, I loved his clear explanations of phonics and the role of sounds in reading. I was one of the those children who struggled with phonics, which resulted in my reading struggles and repeating kindergarten. I think if my parents had read the excerpt below during my struggle period it would have helped them understand.

“If reading is a code between written symbols and speech sounds, it’s going to be hard to learn the code if you can’t hear those sounds. Lots of research indicates that this reasonable supposition is right. Children who have trouble learning to read often have difficulty hearing individual speech sounds. At the other end of the spectrum, children who more or less teach themselves to read turn out to hear them easily. This relationship between the ability to hear speech sounds and reading is not unique to learning to read English— you see it across languages. So we have our first clue about how we can help kids become good readers: help them with this auditory challenge.” (Willingham, Daniel T. (2015-02-24). Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do (pp. 12-13). Wiley. Kindle Edition.)

Part one of the text examines reading in birth-preschool age children. My interests the last few months have been on this age group because of my daughter and the two classes I’m teaching, Mommy & Me Literacy and Children & Literacy. The author’s main points in this section are to create a love of reading and to prepare children for decoding. He gives great ideas/suggestions for parents, educators, and child care providers. One of my favorites he mentioned was using word games to help students with speech sounds.

“Here are some examples of word games that help children to hear individual speech sounds: Some children’s songs and rhymes center on word play, for example, The Name Game (“ Dan, Dan, bo-Ban, banana-fana fo-Fan, fee fi-mo-Man. Dan!”) and Apples and Bananas (“ I like to eat, eat, eat, eeples and baneenees”). Classic nursery rhymes use much of this sort of word play. So do Dr. Seuss, Shel Silverstein, and other children’s authors. Sing songs they know, replacing the initial letter of each word with the letter of your choice, for example, “Mary had a little lamb” becomes “Bary bad a bittle bamb.” Find excuses for alliteration: “Great golly! Gobs of grapes!” (Willingham, Daniel T. (2015-02-24). Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do (p. 33). Wiley. Kindle Edition.)

Before a child can read, he or she must be able to recognize letters, which Willingham discusses. One of the easiest ways parents can help children with letter recognition is what Willingham calls “letters in the wild”. Caregivers should interact with children daily with letters they see on billboards, logos, etc. “If you prompt interest in letters in these daily interactions, it’s that much more likely your child will show interest in letters during read-alouds.” (Willingham, Daniel T. (2015-02-24). Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do (p. 36). Wiley. Kindle Edition.)

Part two of the book addresses kindergarten-second grade. I really liked how Willingham starts off this section by discussing the different reading programs used in schools, phonics vs. whole-word, and balanced literacy. Each school district uses a different approach, so it’s important for parents to be aware of the program their school uses. It’s also important to keep in mind that each student learns differently. “Programs vary, and kids’ experiences within a program vary.” (Willingham, Daniel T. (2015-02-24). Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do (p. 83). Wiley. Kindle Edition.)

The author also addresses the hot topic of technology: “With all the power we attribute to technology, that seems like a pretty wimpy effect. But the modest impact is actually typical for educational technology interventions, no matter what the subject: math, science, or history. More disturbing is a point made by researcher John Hattie: when you try anything new in the classroom, you see, on average, this sort of modest boost to student learning. Why? It’s not clear. (My guess is that the excitement of trying something new makes teachers enthusiastic, and that excitement rubs off on students.) The conclusion I’m emphasizing is that educational technology interventions in general (and those targeting reading in particular) have been less successful than we would have expected.” (Willingham, Daniel T. (2015-02-24). Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do (p. 85). Wiley. Kindle Edition.)

Willingham does go on to mention that technology apps and videos vary in quality and how they are embedded. On the flip side, he also does a great job of mentioning how technology can provide individual feedback and other positive ideas (I really appreciate how he can be so calm when discussing hot topic things).

I love that he follows up the discussion of technology with techniques and ideas parents can use at home with their kids. He includes ideas such as: reading with your child, choosing the right book, providing feedback and dealing with reading frustration. Reading is a challenging skill that takes lots of time to develop, so it’s only natural for children to get frustrated with reading while being at home with a parent. The author includes some great ideas for parents on dealing with this frustration.

“I can offer four suggestions if you find yourself frustrated. First, the habit of not talking much is not only good for your child (so she hears mostly her own voice, reading) but also good for maintaining your composure when you’re frustrated. Second, when you do speak, you can usually find an intonation other than frustration that carries your message in a positive way. When my youngest would look to me for help on the same word three times in sixty seconds, my inclination was to shout, “You KNOW this one.” I trained myself to say, “You know this one,” with the intonation of, “You sly dog.” I probably should have said nothing, but at least I used a positive tone. Third, remind yourself that the whole session is only five or ten minutes. Fourth, if you find that you just can’t keep it together, quit. Ask your child to read with you later. Grinding through the process gives a little practice in decoding, but it carries too high a cost in motivation.”(Willingham, Daniel T. (2015-02-24). Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do (p. 90). Wiley. Kindle Edition.)

The final part is third grade and beyond. Since I’ve taught middle school language arts for five years, I was really curious about his thoughts on motivating struggling readers at this stage. Fluency is discussed in great detail in this part of the book, and it’s fascinating how Willingham connects fluency to spelling.  “It would be nice to get kids to fluency faster, especially given that national tests indicate only about half of kids have reached desired levels of fluency by fourth grade. Is there a way to hurry the process along? Three techniques can help. First, explicit spelling instruction seems to improve fluency. Although the spelling knowledge you use to read is not identical to the knowledge you use when you’re thinking about how to spell a word, there is some overlap. So that’s a reason to include spelling instruction in schools, even though we all use word processors with spell-checkers.” (Willingham, Daniel T. (2015-02-24). Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do (p. 137). Wiley. Kindle Edition.). I have worked in environments where administration feels that students don’t need to spend time on spelling after a certain grade, but it is evident that spelling does translate to an increase in fluency.

The next big concept Willingham tackles is reading comprehension. This is the number one struggle I see with struggling readers in middle and high school. The author addressing the importance to reading comprehension strategies which include ideas like activating prior knowledge, listening actively, summarizing, visualizing, etc.

However, it is important to note, as the author does, that texts become increasingly more challenging the older a child gets. By third grade students are starting to read more nonfiction texts (articles, textbooks) and they are expected to understand the material and then interact with it in some aspect. In addition to that, some schools have made the transition to digital literacy. Instead of simply stating a positive or negative stance, the author breaks down and examines the different components which include general tech savviness and the ability to evaluate information. He then follows up his thoughts with information about the digital revolution.

“One change wrought by the digital revolution is that kids are actually reading much more than they used to, even though reading is commonly thought to be in decline.” (Willingham, Daniel T. (2015-02-24). Raising Kids Who Read: What Parents and Teachers Can Do (p. 156). Wiley. Kindle Edition.). If you think about what students today are doing, this makes total sense. Kids are constantly reading tweets, captions on Instagram, blogs posts, etc. They may not be reading novels, but they are constantly reading.

Overall, I am in love with this book. The ideas and suggestions are explained in a clear, concise manner that is extremely user friendly for those not familiar with the education or reading world. It is the perfect book for any parent because it addresses all stages of reading. It is the perfect book for an educator to use to provide parents with guidance.

Helping Middle School Readers

When we think about helping kids with reading we automatically picture a young child in elementary school. However, there are many students in middle school who also struggle with reading for one reason or another. This age group is tricky to find resources for because they’re in between the learning how to read stage and practicing for the SATs and ACTs.

I’ve taught middle school language arts for six years and have seen students enter my 6th grade classroom at a third grade reading level and be expected to perform at or above grade level.  Sadly, this is the reality for so many teachers, students, and parents. Every year on back to school night I give the same speech and I always have parents emailing me that I was right by the end of the year. Below is my yearly speech:

Middle school is one of the hardest parts of growing up. There are a lot of social situations that arise that often impact academics. Your child will not always get an A. Your child will make a mistake. It is okay. These middle school years are a time of change; physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. Their brains are literally developing right now, and girls do mature faster than boys. Your child may not “get it” this year, and that’s okay. Each child develops at their own pace and for some it doesn’t click until further down the road. As a parent, the best thing you can do for your child is to be supportive. They will cry. They will be stressed. You will get into homework fights. They will yell at you because they don’t know how to handle what is going on. Just remember that it will pass.

Over the years I’ve talked to countless parents about how to help them improve their child’s reading, some even burst into tears during our conversations. Middle school is extremely challenging for parents and students, but there is help available. Today’s post is about how to help middle school readers and is for parents.

1. Know your child’s reading. Every year, without fail, I have at least one student who struggles with reading right off the bat. When I meet with the parents they act surprised because they say that in elementary school the child’s reading wasn’t an issue. Some parents at this point say that I’m too hard, that the school expects too much, or that their child is just being lazy. I spend so much time trying to get parents to recognize the struggle that we waste valuable time that could have been spent creating and enacting a reading plan.

My suggestion for parents is to keep an open mind. It’s okay if your child is not at the reading level they are expected to be at because many times they just aren’t ready. It is not a reflection on you as a parent in any way, some kids just need more time and more practice. Be open to suggestions from the school, even if you don’t necessarily agree with them. I have found that typically boys struggle the most with higher order reading skills, like making inferences. I always tell parents it’s because their brain just isn’t there yet, but it will be. Many times I see the “click” moment in girls over the summer of going into seventh grade, and the boys are the summer going into eighth grade.

2. The role of reading. Once students hit middle school many parents feel that their child doesn’t have to read as much anymore, when in fact they need to be reading more. In elementary school, kids learn to read and in middle school it shifts to kids reading to learn. Most of the information they get is by reading a textbook, an article, etc., so they in fact need to practice reading more because it’s the main source of their learning.

If a child is struggling with reading a textbook provide them with nonfiction reading practice at home. This can include online articles and magazine subscriptions. Below are some great resources.

*For students who love sports, but aren’t ready to tackle Sports Illustrated or  adult Sports Illustrated Kidsarticles, SI (Sports Illustrated) Kids is perfect. This website (click here) has online articles about all different sports written at a lower reading level. The structure of the articles mirror those of adult articles so students are still learning how to navigate nonfiction text structures. The website is user-friendly and ideal for young readers.

*If your child loves animals then they should check out Kids National Geographic (click here). This website is super kid friendly and includes information on all different types of animals. It also has games for kids to play, which is always a plus.

Time for Kids*A great website for news is Time for Kids (click here). This resource is meant for students in grades K-6, so it is not for all middle school students. It is also available in print version if your child prefers to read the old fashioned way.

If a student struggles with reading novels, have some easier books at home for them to read. Ask the teacher for some suggestions or do a quick Google search. A go to list for me is from Goodreads (click here).

3. Read aloud. I know it sounds ridiculous because by middle school students can read independently. However, reading aloud is still super important at this stage of reading development. When kids hear a story they don’t have to worry about decoding unknown words or trying to figure out definitions, they can simply focus on comprehension. This allows them to create pictures, or a movie, in their head. Visualization is key to reading comprehension at this stage. Audiobooks are also phenomenal for helping kids visualize, and they’re perfect for when parents are too busy to read aloud.

Some options for incorporating read alouds include:

*Read together before bedtime. This can be a family activity or one-on-one. You want to make it a routine in order for it to be effective, however, it’s okay to miss a night here and there.

*Listen to audiobooks. Kids are so busy going to different after school activities, so it Audiobookmakes physically reading aloud a little challenging (especially in front of their friends). You can get books on CD at the library and listen to them as a family in the car or download audio books from iTunes and play them in the car or kids can listen to them on their iPod or phone. If you don’t want to spend money on audiobooks, do a Youtube search for the specific book you want. I have used Youtube read alouds for books like A Wrinkle in Time and kids have loved being able to listen independently.

4. Accept the twaddle. Every parent wants their child to read the classics, but in reality many children don’t want to read these. If your child doesn’t like to read and they bring home Diary of a Wimpy Kid, accept it. Many times kids gravitate towards the twaddle (easy, nonsense books) because they don’t have the self confidence to read the harder texts. Normally I allow young middle school (6th grade ish) students to read these books the first few months of school, then I challenge them with more complex texts. This way they are reading and building their confidence, without feeling too frustrated or overwhelmed.

5. Easy approaches to fiction. Students who are struggling readers need a little more guidance when they read fiction, especially class novels. Each teacher has their own approach and expectations and it varies with each text. As a parent, here are some easy ways you can help your child with a school fiction book.

*Read it with them. I have had parents who read class novels when the class does and that is totally okay. You can read the book with your child at home, or read it on your own and then discuss it with your child, whatever is most comfortable for you.

*Use the audio version. Many struggling readers prefer the audio version because they can just focus on the comprehension component. Have your child listen to the audio either before or after independently reading to help them fill in gaps. If the teacher allows it, encourage your child to listen to the audiobook during reading time in class.

*Talk about the book. Reading is a social activity because many times readers want to share their thoughts and opinions about what they read. Start off by asking reading comprehension questions (click here for some ideas) and then have your child describe specific characters and events to you. This dialogue helps students think about what they read on a different level then just plot. I usually suggest to parents that a child should choose one quote per chapter that speaks to them (it was descriptive, it was confusing, or just really good). Have them share this quote with you and talk about it. This type of activity helps with making inferences, a skill many middle schoolers struggle with.

*Sparknotes. I am one of those teachers that actually tells students about Sparknotes Sparknotesbecause when used appropriately they really are a great resource. After your child has read a chapter, have them look for a summary of that chapter online on Sparknotes. If the book is not there, Google chapter summaries for the specific book. Chapter summaries highlight important concepts from the chapter that a struggling reader may miss. They are often short and concise so the reader does not have to worry about vocabulary and long descriptions. I also suggest that students read chapter summaries before they take a quiz or a test just to make sure they comprehend the text.

6. Easy approaches to nonfiction. Many children struggle with the structure and language of nonfiction because it is so different than fiction. The good news is that students read more nonfiction in school because it is used in every class. Below are some easy at home ways to help your child navigate these challenging texts:

*Define the vocabulary. Some teachers require students to record the definition of vocabulary words in a text. In textbooks these words are often bolded and highlighted and the definition can be found in the glossary. As your child is reading make sure they are at least defining the word so they can understand the content. Typically textbook vocabulary words are crucial to understanding the overall picture of the reading.

*Summarize the reading. Depending on the length and teacher requirements, it is good to stop periodically and summarize the reading. Some students work best if they write a sentence summary for every heading, while others like to verbally summarize a section. Find out what works best for your child and go with that. I would make sure they are stopping frequently and especially during a long or information heavy section.

*Work while reading. Many times teachers give a chapter guide that needs to be completed with a reading. Instead of reading the whole chapter then filling out the guide, do the work while reading. This requires your child to slow down and process the information in more than one way.

*Record questions. If your child has questions about the content of the reading have them write it down to ask the teacher. Even if there is a quiz on the information, by having a specific question ready a teacher is more likely to answer it before doing anything with the content.

Middle school are challenging years to begin with, even more so for struggling readers. Always remember to ask for help, especially from the teacher. If you have any specific questions you would like to ask me, feel free to email me at littlereadingcoach@gmail.com.